A Brief History Of The Traveling Funfair

Fairs in this country have a long and ancient history, deeply rooted in tradition.

The word fair is derived from the Latin 'feria', meaning a holiday and at one time the Romans were credited with the introduction of fairs.

It is now generally accepted that their origins are from pagan customs of the people who first settled this land; their seasonal gatherings held for the purposes of both trade and festivity, contained within them the essential elements of the fair.

The Romans did much to promote fairs by improving trade and communications throughout the country.

During the centuries following the departure of the Romans, many fairs and other festivals were incorporated into the calendar of the growing Christian Church. Charters granted by the sovereign gain the fair legal status and an increasing importance in the economic life of the nation.

Merchants and traders from Europe, the Middle East and beyond were drawn to the great chartered fairs of the Middle Ages bringing with them a wealth of goods.

The sheer number of these fairs, no fewer than 4860 were chartered between the years 1200 and 1400, drew not only merchant but entertainers as well: jugglers, musicians and tumblers – the ancestors of today's showmen.

The Black Death of 1348-49 thought about a new kind of fair. In order to stem the rise in wages caused by the shortage of workers, Edward III introduced the Statue of Labourers. This compelled all able bodied men to present themselly for hire at a stipulated wage. These gathering or burning fairs were held mainly around Michealmas, the end of the agricultural year.

By the early eighth century the trading aspects of the charter fairs had waned and most fairs consistently almost entirely of amusements, acrobats, illusionists and theatrical companies all plied their trade on fairgrounds.

Around this time the first fairground rides begin to appear, small crudely constructed out of wood and propelled by gangs of boys.

In 1868, Frederick Savage, a successful agricultural engineer from Kings Lynn, devised a method of driving rides by steam. His invention, a steam engine mounted in the center of the ride was to transform the fairground industry. Freed from the limitations of muscle power, rides could have made larger, more massive and more heavily ornamented. The showman's demand for novelty was matched by the ingenuity of Savage and other engineers.

In the wake of the steam revolution an amazing variety of new designs and rides appeared. These rides were the forerunners of today's amazing thrill rides, over time innovations such as electric lighting, electric motors, hydraulics etc. allowed rides to evolve into the amazing devices that are seen today at any local fairground.

Do You Know What One Of The Highest Selling Automobile Components Is?

So you're one of the people that think automobile sales are the most progressing in sales probably because all of your friends and family have more that one vehicle. But you're wrong. For every automobile sold there are four or more of these critical components sold and without these things on your automobile your car would not run or work. In fact if you did not have these items on an automobile you would not be able to even sell the vehicle. Well you want to know what I am talking about do not you? Well I'm talking about the tires for your car, of course!

I'm sure you have not ever thought of this but while you own and operate your car you are wearing out tires constantly. An average survey done says that you use three sets of tires in a period of five years which is a total of 12 tires in five years depending on what kind of car you have some vehicles have more tires. If you're one of those people like I am who go out in the woods and go mudding and just mess around in the outdoors you might be having a new set of tires each year that means in a period of five years you would have use 20 tires that's a lot of tires do not you think? So you see the demand for auto tires is much greater than the demand for automobiles.

This is the reason why when rubber was first invented it was considered one of the most valuable things at the time and it was also called the "golden sap". It was one of the most valuable things at the time and still is very valuable. Initially locations such as Malaya and Singapore (then known as the Malayan Peninsula) were the world's top manufacturers of the new product and large nations with many consumers like the United States and almost all of Europe were very eager to get to this area and get their hands on this new product. This is probably why Europe has one of the largest tire companies there and why there is so much rubber coming from Europe.

Now after many years have passed the demand for rubber tires is still increasing and showing no signs of slowing down. The demand for auto tires keeps getting bigger and bigger there are more and more cars getting injected and getting put on the market which means more car tires are going to be needed to be produced.

Plan Your Wedding Cheaply – 3 Questions to Start Planning Your Perfectly-Priced, Perfect Wedding

You've been blessed with more meaning than money. You're worried that this might not be the best foundation for creating the wedding celebration you want to have. I think if you can figure out how to share your values, beliefs and dreams, you can have a wonderful wedding. Your task is to find the balance between meaning and money. Some things cost money. There's no way around that. You're going to have to decide how you want to allocate your money, plunking down cash where it's important and smoothing over the places where it matters less to you.

How to create your perfectly priced wedding?

  1. Outline your wedding ceremony . Figure out what goes in a wedding ceremony. What's going to take you from engaged to married. (No, I'm not talking about the legal stuff!) I'm wondering what you want to tell your community about how you love one another. They're going to want to support you, but you have to let them know what it is you want them to support.
  2. Work on your wedding vows . What do you want to promise one other about your making a marriage that works? You want to build your wedding to your skills, values, beliefs and dreams about your marriage, so that you wind up with the marriage that you want. You've invited your guests to your wedding to witness your wedding vows. What do you want them to hear, support and celebrate?
  3. Figure out your wedding budget . How much money do you really have to spend? Given that the theme of your wedding day is your wedding ceremony and the community support for your wedding vows, how do you spend your money to augment those goals? You're going to spend money on creating your ceremony. Because that money is money spent on creating your marriage. What traditional pieces of the wedding reception do you want to include? What says "marriage" to you? Once you allocate your moneys, you're going to have to agree to stick to that budget.

Taking the time to work through these issues before you get started on your planning can go a long way to keeping your wedding modest in expenses and rich in meaning. The richness of meaning will make for a fabulous wedding ceremony. It will also be the thing that keeps you involved and celebrating your marriage many years from now. And that's what you want. How about it? You save money and create a great marriage. Now that's a bargain!

PayPal IPN – Creating Listener Code to Process IPN Messages

You have finally decided IPN is the solution to your website application. You do not want to pay someone else to do it. It can not be that hard, can it? Where can you get some practical advice from people who have been there, done that. This article will answer these questions and help you decide if you are able to write that code. If you find it too complicated there are a few commercial products out there that will handle everything for you so do not lose heart if you find yourself stuck.

PayPal IPN

Instant Payment Notification is better known as PayPal IPN and is PayPal's interface for handling real time confirmation of purchases. A typical use for IPN is where you want to use the software to download.

PayPal provide 3 different types of account. Personal, Premier and Business. You will need Premier or Business to use IPN.

Listener

PayPal IPN messages are not synchronized with actions on your website. You detect IPN messages from PayPal with a piece of code known as a listener.

You specify the URL of your listener in your PayPal account's profile but you can override this for specific transactions when you setup a button or API operation. You can also temporarily turn off the sending of IPN messages, useful if your site is down for maintenance. They are still generated and stored until you switch sending back on again.

You must perform a number of checks on the IPN message received from PayPal.

  • Check the email address to make sure it is yours
  • Check that you have not already processed the transaction identified by the transaction ID
  • Make sure that the transaction's payment status is "completed"
  • Verify that the payment amount actually matches what you intend to charge

PayPal Sandbox

When you are developing your website you really do not want to be trying to get it working by experimenting on a real money system. Any early bugs in the system could leave security holes but even if you write perfect code it is best not to do your testing using real money.

PayPal provides what they call a sandbox, almost identical to the live PayPal system. You can setup fake customers with fake money and make as many test purchases as you want. The perfect system to fully test your web application.

There is a Sandbox Forum on the developer network. It's a great place for advice.

Testing your Listener

The Sandbox has an excellent IPN Simulator (under Test Tools) which lets you choose the transaction type, fill in all the parameter values ​​and send a test IPN to a specified address.

IPN History

PayPal provides an IPN history page under the My Account tab. Click on History to see it. It includes everything you want to know about each IPN message including the following Status values.

  • Sent: indicates that PayPal sent the message to your IPN listener
  • Failed: indicates that PayPal did not receive an acknowledgment to the message
  • Queued: indicates that PayPal is ready to send the message
  • Retrying: indicates that message was resent between 1 and 15 times and PayPal continues to be resend the message
  • Disabled: indicating that the message will not be resent because the merchant's account has been disabled

Conclusion

The best place to search for information is the PayPal Integration Center which has guides, code and links for everything to do with integrating your website with PayPal.

The one place you MUST visit is the PayPal IPN Forum on the developer website. As well as a constantly changing list of discussion topics about IPN, there are some good sticky posts about troubleshooting tips, IPN variables, template code etc.

PayPal IPN is a difficult subject but the combination of an excellent testing environment in the form of the sandbox and the good quality advice provided through the forums should make it possible for you to get your website application up and running.